Friday, 8 November 2013


by  V. Krishnamurthy


(as per Hindu scriptures, particularly the Srimad-Bhagavatam)
  • The one day is divided into 14 periods. Six such periods are over. We are now in the 7th.
  • Each period is named after the One Ruler who is appointed to rule the entire earthly world during that period. The generic name for such a ruler is Manu. The period is called a Manvantara.
  • The name of the present Manu is Vaivasvata, the son of the Sun-God.
  • How long is the day of Brahma ? (4.32 billion years)
  • What is the present age of this universe ?
  • What is the Hindu concept of Time ?

Names of the manvantaras of this day of Brahma upto the present seventh.
(each manvantara is of duration 306,720,000 human years)
1.Svaayambhuva Beginning of Creation
Dhruva Episode
Descent of the Lord as Half-man-half-lion to blessPrahlada
2.Svaarochisha The Episode of King Suratha
3. Uttama
4.Taamasa The Episode of Gajendra, the elephant-devotee
5. Raivata
6. Chaakshusha The churning of the Ocean of milk
             7. Vaivasvata          PRESENT MANVANTARA
There are seven more manvantaras to go in the future

We are in the 7th manvantara .
Each manvantara is divided into 71 maha-yugas.
We are in the 28th maha-yuga of this manvantara.
Each maha-yuga is divided into 4 yugas shown below for the current maha-yuga.

We are presently in the kaliyuga
of the 28th maha-yuga
of the 7th manvantara of Brahma’s day
(Duration of every kali-yuga = 432,000 years)
l: = 432,000


Age of the Universe
Portion of Brahma’s day elapsed so far
(till say, 2000 A.D.) consists of
Duration Table

  • 6 manvantara-twilights (6 x 4l )
  • 6 manvantaras completed (6 x71 x10l )
  • 1 manvantara-twilight before the 7th (4 l )
  • 27 maha-yugas past in this manvantara (27 x 10l )
  • elapsed yugas in this maha-yuga ((4 + 3 + 2) l )
  • 5102 years in kali-yuga
This adds up to 4567 l + 5102 =
                       1,972,949,102 human years
This is the present (as of 2000A.D.) age of the universe in this day of Brahma
Duration of Kali-yuga (l ) =
                              432,000 (human years)
Duration of Dvapara-yuga (2
l )
Duration of Treta-yuga (3
l )
Duration of Satya-yuga (4
l )
Duration of maha-yuga:
l + 2 l + 3 l + 4l ) = 10l
Duration of manvantara: 71 x 10l
Duration of one manvantra- twilight : 4l
          (one before every manvantara)

Duration of Brahma’s day
One day of Brahma is of duration equivalent to 1000 mahayugas. His night is equally long. At the beginning of every day creation starts. At the end of the day all that was created merge in the Absolute and Brahma ‘sleeps’ as it were. 360 such days and nights make one year of Brahma. According to the Puranas, He has spent 50 years like this and this day is the first day in his fifty-first year!
One day of Brahma  = 14 manvantaras + 15 manvantara twilights
(because there is an extra manvantara - twilight at the end of all the 14 manvantaras)
= 14 x 71 mahayugas + 15 x 4 l
= 994 mahayugas + 60 l
= 994 mahayugas + 6 mahayugas
= 1000 mahayugas
= 1000 x10
l = 4,320,000,000 human years.

Names of the remaining seven (future) manvantaras of this day of Brahma
  • 8 Saavarni   ------------------->
  • 9 Daksha-saavarni
  • 10 Brahma-saavarni
  • 11 Dharma-saavarni
  • 12 Rudra-saavarni
  • 13 Deva-saavarni
  • 14 Indra-saavarniafter which cosmic night will follow
The next Manu (i.e., the eighth) will be Saavarni. This promise was made by Mother Goddess to one King Suratha during the second Manvantara. To him (and another) the triple story of Mother Goddess is narrated in the Devi-bhagavatam ( also Chandi or Durg A-saptasati ). The story begins from a mythological event that happened after the end of the last kalpa (= day of Brahma) and ends up by forecasting the feats of Mother Goddess that are yet to happen in this kalpa. One such is the prediction that Suratha will be born as Manu Saavarni.

(Source: Srimad-Bhagavatam, IX - 3)
In the mid-satya-yuga of the first maha-yuga of the present manvantara i.e., around 115 million years ago there lived a King of the Solar dynasty, by name Kakudmi, and his beautiful daughter Revati. Not trusting the astrologers of his time, yet believing in the maxim ‘marriages are made in heaven’ Kakudmi took his daughter to the celestial world of Brahma the Creator (Note: in every satya-yuga such journeys are supposed to be possible) in order to ask the Creator Himself as to who would be the right marital match for his daughter. Kakudmi had somebody in his own mind. But Lord Brahma was available to him only after a twenty minutes or so of waiting time (by the standards of that world). When Kakudmi finally had the opportunity to ask Brahma his question, Brahma laughed and said:
My dear Kakudmi, from the time you came here your earthly world has passed through 27 maha-yugas and so none of whom you have in mind or their descendents are alive now. Right now people are enjoying the avatara (=descent) of Lord Krishna on the Earth. Go back and marry off your daughter to Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna’.
Thus it was that Kakudmi and Revati travelled ‘back to their future’ -- from the 1st mahayuga to the 27th -- and Revati was married to Balarama. 

Note: 1 mahayuga = 43.2 ‘seconds’ for Brahma.
According to Hindu religion and cosmology the flow of Time is eternal. Creation and Dissolution are only two events in a long cyclic succession of Cosmic events. There is no beginning in the past and there is no end to the future. Creation is a manifestation in concrete terms of the Absolute. Dissolution is when all the created universe merges in the Absolute. And that is when the period of non-manifestation begins. The periods of manifestation and of non-manifestation alternate. These are the days and nights of Brahma.
Brahma Himself is a manifestation of the Absolute. He has a life of 100 years in His time.
Between one kalpa (technical name for Brahma’s day) and the next, the only thing that survive are, Brahma himself (who has to be ‘brought back to memory’, by the Absolute, after his ‘sleep’ !), the vedas in their latent form and the collected aggregate of vaasanaas (imprints of actions and thoughts) of all individual souls. Just as each kalpa is followed by another kalpa with an intervening Cosmic Night, so also one Brahma is followed by another Brahma.
Copyright V. Krishnamurthy

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