- aaharya (extracting solid bodies),
- bhedya (excision),
- eshya (probing),
- lekhya (sarification),
- vedhya (puncturing),
- visravya (extracting fluids), and
- sivya (suturing).
Chanakya's Arthashãstra describes post-mortems, and Bhoja Prabandha describes brain surgery, successfully performed in 927 AD by two surgeons on King Bhoja to remove a growth from his brain. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism, physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.